The Education of independence among preschool children
The problem of studying of self-reliance as core qualities of the personality at different stages of ontogenesis, search of reserves, effective ways of development of this quality is one of the Central problems in psycho-pedagogical science (sh. a. Amonashvili, E. P. Belozertsev, P. I. Pidkasistyj, K. K. Platonov, Z. F. Ponomarev, S. L. Rubinstein, G. I. Shchukina, etc.).
Currently the urgency of this problem is due to the humanistic objectives of the comprehensive disclosure of identity of a developing personality . In psychological research questions of autonomy are considered in line with the fundamental problems of personality development of her identity, activity and activity.
Autonomy is defined as the most important personality trait that contributes to its position in the life that characterizes the ability to plan, control and actively operate
Autonomy is considered as an integrative quality – the fusion of mind, emotions and will.
Autonomy is constantly developing personal quality which Foundation is laid in childhood. The first signs of independence are seen by teachers and psychologists in preschool age (N. M.Acarina, B. G. Anan’ev, R. S. Storm, M. I. Lisina, etc.). It is emphasized that every healthy child is committed to a certain independence from the adult in everyday and practical activities. The independence Foundation is laid at the boundary of early and preschool age and further development of this quality is associated with the development of core activities: games (K. Bondarenko, A. I. Matusik, N. I.Mikhaylenko), domestic labour (N. Godin, M. V. Kruijt, V. I. Loginov, D. V. Sergeyev), design (A. N. Davidchuk, Z. V. Lishtvan, L. A. Paramonov, G. V. Ordovsky), art (N. And.Vetlugina D. I. Vorobyova, T. S. Komarova) and training activities (R. S. Bure, A. P. Usov, O. A. Onishchenko). Each activity has an impact on development activities and initiatives, the search for adequate means of expression in the activities, development of ways of self-control, raising volitional aspect of autonomy.
Available scientific evidence suggests that by the end of preschool age in the conditions of optimal education and training of children can achieve pronounced indicators of autonomy in various activities.
Indicators of autonomy senior preschool children . the desire to solve problems without adult assistance; the ability to set a goal of activity; to carry out basic planning; to implement the plans, to get the result; the ability to display initiative and creativity.
However, the data for scientific research (T. I. Babayev) show that a significant number of children of preschool age do not reach high levels of autonomy. The range varies, 18 to 40% of children. In the future, these children will inevitably encounter difficulties in their studies. Observed underestimation of educators of the importance of independence for children’s development.
In terms of the proper organization of children’s activities independence preschooler develops from to reproductive autonomy with elements of exploration and creativity.
In the theory and practice of preschool education the problem of the autonomy of the preschool child in household labor is given a special place (R. S. Bure, G. N. Godin, V. I. Loginov. D. V. Sergeeva, M. V. Kruijt). Independence is brought up when a child simple responsibilities in the service of yourself, loved ones. The level of autonomy is associated with the development of social experience in the labor market, the possibility of the existence of child labour subject positions. Independence takes place from reproductive to creative during the promotion of the children’s consciousness, self-control and self-esteem. The development of independence depends on the position of adults.
On the issue M. V. Kruijt the study within the concept of the program “Childhood”. The results obtained mV Krulak on diagnostic phase showed that the majority of children of senior preschool age are at low levels of autonomy, dynamics of development of autonomy increases with age slowly dominates the reproductive autonomy of nature. the basis of the experiment was the consideration of autonomy in line with the concept of holistic personal development, independence acted as a core personality trait that unites intellectual, moral, volitional, and emotional sphere of personality. Personality acts as a complex multi-level education, emerging in the process of socialization, during vigorous activity.
The experimental work took place in the DOW of St. Petersburg, Tallinn. The methodology is based on the idea of the relationship of means of labor education. The focus of the methodology to develop the independence finds expression in the performance of the child in the subject position of labour. Technique – cooking included three stages.
The first stage – formation of system of knowledge about the work of the cook. The aim of this stage is to reveal to the children the focus of labour processes, to introduce the structure, means of implementation, to create the desire to learn to cook. Organized tours, talks, to reinforce knowledge was used playing exercises and simulations. sustained interest in how adults cook served as an indicator for the transition to the second stage.
The second stage is a holistic training to the labour processes of preparing the simplest of meals (biscuits, salad, sandwiches) and the use of receptor models. The goal is to form obstrutive and special skills necessary for elementary inclusion of the child as the subject of labor in a joint process with an adult cooking. Special attention is paid to hygienic requirements and cooking safety rules. Conducted special classes, were widely used model (ladder sequence).
The third stage of self-employment of children in cooking simple dishes. The children were learning new processes by transferring his culinary experience, themselves modeled, to do homework. High variability of the models and the rich content of everyday working activities, cooking allowed each child will manifest individuality, independence, get positive emotions. level of independence was largely due to the fact that the teacher was able to organize a developing environment ( the kitchen area).
A control experiment revealed significant dynamics of the development of self-reliance: its low levels disappeared completely, there was a level of creative independence.
Research shows that the independence of a child in employment is provided by the developing environment, targeted assistance teacher for kids to use generalized modus operandi by using the methodology of teaching based on the principles of the subject-subject pedagogical interaction and cooperation of the DOE and the family in nurturing the child’s independence.